The Sociogenesis Diagram

1. The technological evolution

1.1 In development of the civilization, its technological basis has made some basic qualitative transitions.

The transition from use of natural products by means of gathering and hunting to the artificial manufacture was the first transition.
The mankind has passed on to the transformation of natural objects.
On this transition, the human transformation from the user of the nature in a manufacture element has occurred.
The economic expediency of utilization of people to work in manufactures and exploitation of them has arisen.

The transition from use of muscles of workers as the basic energy (force) source to other energy (force) sources was the second one.
The basic function of the worker became the control of streams of energy (force).
The function of the energy (force) source has been separated from the worker.

The transition from the natural processes of manufacture to the artificial processes was the third one.
Before this transition, agrarian manufactures were the prevailing part of the economy.
The basis of agrarian manufactures is the natural processes - the vital functions of plants and animals.
After this transition, industrial productions became the prevailing part of the economy. Their basis is artificial processes of the transformation of energy and substance.
The main factor of the third transition was the transition from use of natural energy (force) sources - muscles of workers and cattle - to the artificial transformation of energy from one kind into different one.

As a result of these transitions, the civilization has passed three stages of the technological evolution.
At the first stage, i.e. from the first transition to the second, the muscular technology dominated. Muscles of workers are the basic power (energy) source in this technology. Examples of muscular technology are the hoe-mattock agriculture, carrying of cargoes, digging.
At the second stage, i.e. from the second transition to the third, the technology of use of cattle dominated. The cattle is the basic power (energy) source in this technology. Examples of the technology are the draught agriculture, transportation of cargoes, cattle breeding.
The third stage has begun after the third transition and proceeds now. At this stage, the technology of transformation of energy dominates.
The basic element of this technology is the Machine - the artificial device which transforms energy of one kind to energy of other kind and directs its stream to a required direction.
Examples of machines are a steam-engine, an electric motor, a nuclear reactor, a fire-arm, a thermonuclear bomb.
The basic function of the majority of workers in this technology is control of a corresponding fragment of a production process.


The Sociogenesis Diagram

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2. The stimulation

2.1.1 A method of stimulation of workers determines the efficiency of the production process.
A method which provides the greatest efficiency is used the most probably.
The managing a worker includes following functions:
explanation of the description of actions which the worker has to do, and-or the description of results of the Production Process (PP) which the worker has to carry out,
control of the worker's actions and-or the PP results,
stimulation of the worker.
The purpose of stimulation of a worker is increase of intensity of his desire to work, i.e. to carry out actions and-or to reach the PP results which the manager needs.
The stimulation includes:
explanation to the worker of the description of stimulus and conditions of its application and
application of stimulating influences according to results of the control of PP and-or its results.
The stimulation can be two kinds infliction and incentive ones.
Infliction stimulation includes threats to punish a worker under conditions of his insufficient zeal and-or non-achievement of demanded results of PP and realization of punishment.
A punishment is actions of a manager increasing painful and-or reducing pleasant emotions at a worker.
Incentive stimulation includes promises to reward a worker under conditions of realization of demanded actions with big intensity and-or achievement of demanded results of PP and realization of reward.
The reward is actions of a manager increasing pleasant and-or reducing painful emotions at a worker.
Stimulation during time of PP with control of labour actions of a worker provides, as a rule, his greatest zeal during all PP.

A fear of punishment, in most cases, causes greater zeal than expectation of a reward.
Accustoming to a punishment reduces sensitivity to stimulation in much smaller degree than accustoming to a reward.
Expenses of manager for punishment realization, in most cases, are less than expenses for a reward.
Therefore, - other things being equal - the infliction stimulation, as a rule, is more effectively than incentive one.
Besides, the infliction stimulation causes pleasant emotion of malice and feeling of the power over a worker at a manager.
Therefore, a manager, as a rule, prefers the infliction stimulation to the incentive one.

If control over actions of a worker is problematic, a manager can indirectly supervise his zeal by results of PP. The control by intermediate results is more effective than the control by the final result of PP as allows to provide the greatest zeal during all PP.

A worker's desire to work is named "the subjective factor".
Many factors which are not dependent on a worker's will, influence on PP. They are named "Objective Factors" (OF). For example, weather, climate, fertility, properties of technology etc.
A worker's health, force, psychics, abilities, skills, and qualification also are OF.
If all OF are favour to obtainment of the demanded results of PP, these results depend only on a worker's zeal.
Under this condition, a manager can estimate the zeal by results (intermediate and-or final) of PP and to stimulate a worker according to this estimation.
If any OF do not allow to obtain the demanded results of PP, they cannot be obtained independently of a worker's zeal and stimulation. Under this condition, the stimulation is useless and senseless.
If a worker worked intensively, but demanded results of PP are not obtained because of OF, and the manager nevertheless has punished the worker, the worker understands that the intensive labor does not provide absence of punishment.
Therefore henceforth, the worker's repudiation of a work, flight of a place of work, and even retaliatory endamagement to the manager and to his property are probable.
To prevent such conflict situation, the manager has to supervise all OF essentially influencing on PP.
If the manager cannot supervise all OF, he cannot indirectly supervise a worker's zeal by results of PP with the sufficient reliability.
Under this condition, erroneous estimation of the zeal is possible, and the risk of conflict to the worker is.
To exclude this risk, the manager is compelled to refuse application of more effective infliction stimulation and to apply less effective, but conflict-free incentive one.
Thus, if the manager cannot supervise action of the worker and all OF, he is compelled to refuse from infliction stimulations and to apply incentive one.
Under condition of long-term action of uncontrollable constant OF, a multiple performance of identical work allows the manager to supervise indirectly OF.
For example, he ascertains if the worker has necessary qualification. Therefore, at the subsequent performances of work of the same kind, the manager can pass from incentive stimulation to infliction one.
A worker, as a rule, expects such possibility.
Therefore, in such situation, as a rule, he simulates harmful influence of OF, for example, the inability and impossibility of satisfactory performance of the task.
To avoid passive sabotage, the manager has to guarantee the worker against punishments in the future.
The Conclusion. If a worker can simulate harmful influence of OF, a manager is compelled to guarantee a worker against punishments.


If carried out work is similar to works which were carried out earlier repeatedly, a manager knows average time and the quality parameters with which an average worker can perform similar work.
He also knows cost of workers of the necessary qualification. On this basis, he knows for what incentive an average worker will agree to perform this work.
If the work is original, that is, similar works were not carried out earlier, statistical knowledge on its performance is absent. The manager cannot know the time and parameters of quality of performance of the work with sufficient probability. Also he does not know size of incentive for which an average worker will agree to perform this work.
The worker, as a rule, knows about these circumstances. Therefore, at a conclusion of employment agreement, he can establish raised time and understated parameters of quality of performance of the work and to demand the payment which is much more than objective cost of labor expenditures. The work performance on such conditions considerably reduces useful result for the manager, for example, profit.
The Conclusion. If the work is original, the stimulation of a worker, as a rule, ineffectively.


If a manager cannot establish if the work executed or not, the stimulation of a worker is, in principle, inefficiently and almost senselessly.


The Sociogenesis Diagram