The Sociogenesis Diagram
5. The historical change of methods of realization of the power and
possession of the basic riches of a society
5.1 The authoritarianism and autocracy
22.214.171.124 The power is ability to govern people.
Possibility to command means and resources of stimulation determines the ability to govern people.
Therefore, the political group which commands the greater part of means and resources of stimulation which are in a society, carries out the power.
The state is system of realisation of the power in a society.
The power over a society provides possession of its basic riches.
Riches are means of the stimulation.
The method of possession of the basic riches of a society which provides the greatest efficiency of increase of riches of people which own the power, exists most possibly.
If in the economy, the basic process which determines obtaining of riches, is the distribution of existing resources, several public groups struggle for possession of the resources.
The dominating group possesses the greater part of these resources.
The dominating group uses these resources for equipment and stimulation of the state machinery.
The process of struggle against competing groups and process of distribution of resources cause the hierarchical structure of dominating group because such structure has maximal efficiency in these processes.
The Supreme Head (the Pharaoh, the shah, the monarch etc.) concentrates functions of governance over the dominating group and distributions of existing resources.
The Supreme Head stimulates members of the dominating group and other the state machinery by means of distribution of parts of the basic riches of a society to govern them.
The Supreme Head may arbitrarily put damage, punish and force any member of a society.
The political system in which one person or, in rare instances, small group of people carries out the power over a society by means of the state machinery, is authoritative.
The possession of the basic riches of a society by one person or, in rare instances, by several people jointly is autocratic.
Thus, if the basic process which determines obtaining of riches, is distribution of existing resources, the authoritative governance and autocratic possession of the basic resources is the most probable in such society.
The basic riches of a society are natural resources - lands, waters, woods, minerals etc., and products of artificial manufactures - machines, buildings, factories, constructions, technologies, foodstuffs, means of operating and transformation of information, computer programs etc.
If the basic riches of a society are natural resources and distribution of these resources determines reception of riches by members of a society, according to
the authoritative governance and the autocratic possession of the basic resources is the most probable in such society.
The autocratic possession can be two kinds — centralised and allotment.
At the centralised possession, the state machinery manages the most of economic productions of a society and appropriates the most part of products of a society.
The Supreme Head distributes the obtained products to members of the state machinery and members of a society to stimulate them.
The centralised appropriation, possession and distribution of public products allow the Supreme Head to stimulate all members of a society and, hence, to govern them.
The political system in which the Supreme Head governs all members of a society by means of the state machinery, is autocracy.
If the state machinery cannot directly manage manufactures in the most of productions of a society enough effectively, the Supreme Head can carry out the allotment possession.
At this mode of possession, the Supreme Head allots natural resources in the form of feuds to members of the state machinery.
They, in turn, allot parts of the plots to members of the teams.
The parts of the plots are given to serfs.
As a result of such distribution, the large feuds divide into plots of smaller sizes. Independent farms work on them.
The small sizes of farms allow to manage them with the greatest efficiency.
The persons who allot the plots are called suzerains.
Users of plots are called vassals.
The plots are the means of the stimulation. For the gotten plot, a vassal is obliged to submit to the suzerain, to serve and give him a part of product (probably in monetary form).
The described political-economical relations are called "vassalage".
Vassals give the suzerain only a part of their products.
Other part remains in their possession.
This resource allows a vassal to maintain his machinery of governance and violence and to govern people on his plot.
The vassal machinery does not submit to a direct governance of the Supreme Head machinery.
The political system of such kind is called as aristocratic.
If muscular technologies, for examples, the plantation hoe-mattock agriculture, manual extraction of stones, prevail in the economy, the centralised management of such economy can be optimum effective because of its relative simplicity.
In muscular production processes, basically, slaves worked. The most of them were captives of the army and belonged to the state.
Therefore in such society, the centralised possession and autocratic governance is the most probable.
Such political-economical system of a society existed in the states of Pharaohs.
By analogy to concept "feudalism", such system can be called "pharaohism".
If technologies of use of cattle prevail in an economy,
the incentive stimulation is mainly applied.
Kinds and sizes of encouragements can be various in different cases.
In favorable conditions, a worker can agree to work for third of crop. In difficult conditions, a worker can agree to work only for nine-tenths of crop.
At the centralised management, the operative ascertainment of millions optimum encouragements demands transfer and processing of huge volumes of the information.
During the epoch of technologies of use of the cattle, the necessary means for these functions are absent. Therefore the centralised possession cannot provide the management of the economy with acceptable efficiency.
At the allotment possession, the management functions are substantially decentralised and carried out by managers of farms.
The autonomy of management provides optimum efficiency of manufacture.
The relative part of the national product which the Supreme Head machinery appropriates at the allotment possession, is much less than at the centralised possession because the most part of the product is appropriated by vassals and peasants.
However because of increase of volumes of the national product, the absolute volume of riches of the Supreme Head is more than at the centralised possession.
Therefore during the epoch of technologies of use of cattle, the allotment possession and the aristocratic governance are the most probable.
Such political-economical system of a society is called "feudalism".
During transition from the Era of natural production processes to the Era of artificial production processes, the quantity of riches of merchants and owners of manufactories, shops, mills etc. increases.
This part of a society is the third estate.
This estate aspires to limit the power of local feudal lords.
The estate mobilises a part of the riches and transfers them to the monarch.
The monarch uses these riches and increases the state machinery and the army under him.
The relative part of groups of feudal lords in army decreases.
The monarch power strengthens.
The monarch establishes the legal system limiting the power of feudal lords.
The monarch establishes the tax system reducing incomes of feudal lords and increasing incomes of the state treasury.
The economic-political mode with these properties is called "absolutism".
The Sociogenesis Diagram
5.2 The republic
126.96.36.199 During the Era of artificial production processes, the basic riches of a society are products of artificial manufactures - machines, buildings, factories, technologies, computer programs etc.
Their cumulative price is much more the cumulative price of natural resources.
In the undeveloped countries the most part of riches is the natural resources. According to (188.8.131.52)
in such countries, the authoritative governance and the autocratic possession of the basic resources are most probable.
Any member of a developed society who has necessary resources, can create, appropriate and accumulate new riches by means of manufacture of goods and services. The desire and assistance of the state are not required for realisation of an artificial manufacture.
Therefore, the multitude of members of a society own the most part of the artificial riches which make the basic part of riches of a society.
Thus, unlike the Era of natural processes in which the autocratic possession exists, the public possession of the basic riches of a society exists during the Era of artificial processes.
During the Epoch of machine technologies, the public possession exists in the form of the private property on artificial products and of the national property on natural resources.
Citizens direct the part of the riches to the stimulation of the state machinery by means of the political parties.
According to (184.108.40.206) this determines the power of the multitude of members of a society over th estate machinery.
The political system in which the multitude of members of a society governances the state machinery, is republic.
The traditional form of participation of citizens in the stimulation of the state machinery is the payment of taxes.
The traditional form of participation of citizens in the governance of the state is elections of deputies of the representative bodies.
Each citizen delegates the voice to certain deputy and authorises him/her to govern the state machinery on behalf of this citizen.
The representative bodies establish laws, appoint and supervise heads of the state machinery.
Political goals and interests of citizens are various. Citizens with common interests unite into political parties which are the basic subjects of the political activity.
The purposes of parties, as a rule, do not coincide. Society resources are limited. Therefore, achievement of the purposes by one party, as a rule, causes a damage to interests of other parties.
During the Era of natural processes when the basic riches were natural resources, and the weapon was cold, contradictions between parties were resolved often by means of military violence.
During the Era of artificial processes, the basic riches are artificial products which are easily collapsed by fire-arms.
Therefore, the violent resolution of political conflicts causes excessively big damage to their participants. Therefore, it is improbable and happens rather seldom.
The most influential parties agree and establish the rules of formation of the common representative bodies of the society, of their making decisions, of establishments of laws, and of appointment of heads of the state, and also the rules of formation and function of the bodies of resolution of disputes — the courts.
These rules usually make the basic content of the Constitution.
Influence of political parties fluctuates. Dominating parties can lose the power after a while, and opposition parties can get the power.
Therefore, the hopes of future lawful acquisition of the power, and also the fear before lawful punishment constrain oppositionists from illegal infliction of a damage to dominating parties and to the state.
Understanding of possibility to lose the power in the future keeps dominating parties from an establishment of laws which discriminate citizens who do not participate in dominating parties, and also motivates the parties to observe the principle of equal operation of laws concerning all citizens and their associations.
As citizens carry out the power, one of the basic constitutional principles of the republic establishes the following:
"The society forbids the state bodies to cause a damage to citizens and to force them to any actions, except those cases when a court has decided that the actions of the citizens have violated laws and have caused a damage to other citizens or to the society."
The short classical formula of the main principle of the republic law is
"Everything is allowed that is not forbidden".
Therefore, the authorities can forbid citizens only such actions which can cause a direct damage to other citizens or to the society.
The Sociogenesis Diagram