The Sociogenesis Diagram
5.3 The Historical establishment of the Republic
22.214.171.124 The historical transition of a society from the authoritative System to the public one occurs as a results of the transition from the Era of natural production processes to the Era of artificial processes.
This transition is caused by distribution of machine technologies. Hence, the public System is established as a result of distribution and domination of these technologies.
The normal natural process of transformation of the authoritative society to the public one is evolutionary.
The determining property of the evolution is the simultaneous coexistence of qualitatively old and new systems by gradual reduction of activity of old and increase of activity of new systems.
As a result of development and distribution of the manufactures based on steam-engines and then as well on other converters of energy, the bourgeoisie accumulates the big capitals.
As a rule, the monarch and aristocracy limit enrichment of the bourgeoisie. This causes reduction of the production. It, in turn, reduces the state resources.
Because of this, the country lags behind neighbouring countries. Its defensibility decreases.
This compels the monarch and aristocracy to give the bourgeoisie certain freedom and even some support.
At some moment, the cumulative riches of the bourgeoisie surpass riches of the monarch.
The autocratic possession of the basic riches of the society is superseded by the public possession.
The bourgeoisie unites a part of the riches in political parties and directs them to the stimulation of the state machinery and its members.
Political parties create the public representative bodies.
Influence of each party in such body is determined by the sizes of its payments to the representative body treasury.
These bodies finance certain state needs. In gratitude for that, the monarch establishes laws favourable to the bourgeoisie.
In process of growth of riches of the bourgeoisie and relative reduction of riches of the monarch, the bourgeoisie bribes the state machinery.
Functions of the stimulation of the state machinery and the governance of the state gradually pass from the monarch into the representative bodies. Thus, the authoritative System is superseded by the public one.
In some countries, the natural process of the evolutionary transformation of the authoritative society to the public one was broken by revolutionary transformations.
The determining property of the revolution is destruction of existing systems and, instead of them, creation qualitatively new systems.
Social revolutions, as a rule, are carried out by means of mass violence, cause the multitude of victims and destructions, cause a huge damage to a society, and delay its development for decades.
If a revolution was made in the moment when bourgeoisie:
already saved up more resources than the monarch had,
already had the powerful political structures,
bribed a sufficient part of members of the state machinery, first of all, military and police officers,
that this revolution had chances to create a steady republic.
If the specified conditions were absent, revolutions, as a rule, came to the authoritarianism restorations.
The Sociogenesis Diagram
6. The optimum system of the Republic
6.1.1 Each political party contributes money to the state budget.
during the epoch of machine technologies
The fundamental property of social systems (126.96.36.199) causes the main principle of the optimum republic — "Influence of each party to the power realisation is proportional to its payment to the state budget".
Realisation of this principle provides the bourgeoisie power.
Leaders of political parties make the Supreme authority — the Cabinet of leaders of parties.
In making decisions, the weight of the Cabinet member's voice is equal to the member's party contribution to the state budget.
The Cabinet of leaders of parties establishes the laws, appoints and supervises ministers and the General Public prosecutor.
Territorial and local authorities similarly function.
The state and local budgets get money from two basic sources — payments for natural resources and environmental pollutions, and contributions of political parties.
The state can levy the payments for natural resources because these resources belong to all society.
On the instructions of the Supreme authority of the society, the state gives citizens the resources to use for payments.
Collection of the big payments for natural resources compels to spare them. It solves naturally and effectively the ecology problems.
According to the principle (188.8.131.52), the republican society forbids the state authorities to levy taxes on citizens and to impose duties on them.
Disputes in a society are resolved by courts.
The resolution of disputes is not a function of governance. Therefore in the republic, the court is not the authority and, unlike the authoritative system, it is not a part of the state.
The resolution of dispute includes making decisionons about truth of facts which the litigation participants have declared, and ascertainment of correspondence of true facts to certain points of the legislation.
The resolution of disputes between the state authorities and citizens is the most important.
Therefore, participation of the power representative bodies and the society in appointment of judges is the preferable.
This condition is realised by procedure of election of judges by local community of lawyers among candidates who a city or region representative body has nominated.
Regional courts and the Supreme Court, basically, should solve the methodological problems. Therefore, it is expedient:
judges of regions to elect judges of regional courts,
regional representative bodies to nominate candidates for judges of regional courts,
judges of regional courts to elect judges of the Supreme Court,
the Supreme representative body to nominate candidates for judges of the Supreme Court.
The power representative bodies should have the special agency of oversight of the executive authorities. The Attorney-General can be such institution of the oversight.
Such system of the power creates the best legal conditions for the business.
The System forbids the state to regulate activity of private enterprises and the private life of citizens. Therefore, the economy is as much as possible effective and grows on 10 % and more in a year.
The bourgeoisie feels the responsibility for the country and promotes its long-term optimum development.
The described political system is called as bourgeois republic or bourgeoiscracy.
Conformity of its principles with the immanent properties of social systems provides optimum efficiency of functioning and speed of development of a society during the epoch of machine technologies.
The more real political systems differ from the optimum System, the less efficiency of functioning and speed of development of corresponding societies are.
The Sociogenesis Diagram
7. The types of the republics deviating from
7.1.1 During the revolutions, the bourgeoisie was compelled to involve the big masses of population to wage revolutionary civil wars against authoritative regimes.
the optimum system
One of the basic means of this involvement was the promise to grant the right to equal participation in election of authorities.
This right has been realised in the Legislations on the democratic system of established republics.
The evolutionary transformation of the authoritarianism to the republic which occurs under the influence of immanent mechanisms of a society, is the spontaneous natural process.
The revolutionary transformation is artificial process.
The ideologists of creation of the republic thought out its concept when the scientific knowledge of the immanent properties of social systems was absent.
The political system of ancient cities-republics was the basis of this concept.
The majority of their population was handicraftsmen and merchants with approximately identical property and social status.
The sizes of these cities were small in comparison with medieval and later states.
Therefore, the properties of these societies essentially differed from societies during the epoch of machine technologies. Nevertheless, the democratic principle of their political system has been used for establishment of new republics.
The "indisputable" postulate — "God created all men equal" has been thought up for its substantiation.
The myth that democracy is the only form of the republic and the best political system for all times, countries, conditions, and circumstances, is implanted into the public mind.
The bourgeoisie financed political parties and used manipulators of mass consciousness — mass-media, showmen, clericals etc.
The most part of the disloyal population was debarred from elections by means of voting qualifications — property, national, gender, educational, age ones.
The bourgeoisie provided election of its representatives with these means and, thus, carried out the power.
Republics in which the majority of citizens has the right to equal participation in election of authorities, and in which the bourgeoisie carries out the power by means of financing of political parties, are called as bourgeois-democratic republics.
The equal suffrage contradicts the fundamental principle of social governance (184.108.40.206)
which asserts that the political forces which command the most part of means and resources of the stimulation, govern a society.
The society reaches the maximum speed of development at the maximum economic activity and the optimum public consumption.
During the epoch of machine technologies, the accumulation of productive resources by the bourgeoisie determines society development.
Therefore, the perspective strategic interests of a society, basically, correspond to the interests of the bourgeoisie.
The overwhelming majority of population are interested to reduce intensity of their work and to increase their consumption. This contradicts the perspective interests of a society.
Therefore, participation of majority of citizens in political governance by means of elections slows down development of a society and causes damage to its future.
In democratic republics — the USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia, GNP growth makes 0-2 % a year.
And in the countries in which political systems are close to bourgeois republics, — Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan etc., GNP growth makes 10 % and more.
The authorities of developed countries subsidize unprofitable branches of the economy, for example, agriculture, metallurgy, etc. that the ruling parties to get votes.
This reduces resources for development of the economy and causes damage to the nature. ( The agrarian production is one of the most ecologically harmful)
This reduces export of capitals to underdeveloped countries, development of manufactures there, carrying over of agrarian productions from the cold countries to solar ones where their efficiency is more several times.
Slow development of backward countries keeps the social conflictness, high death rate and excessive birth rate in them.
In most cases, ordinary voters have no necessary information, qualification and sufficient desire to elect rightly even in own interests. As a rule, the majority of citizens ignores political processes and do not participate in elections.
Political forces which possess necessary resources and means, manipulate their consciousness.
The majority of voters is able consciously to make the decision only in cases of elimination of parties which long time caused an obvious damage to a society.
In cases of distribution of belief in any religion or ideology in form of mass fanaticism, as shown below in section 8, the democratic procedures, as a rule, lead to establishment of totalitarian regimes of the power.
Revolutionary transformations of authoritative societies to the public ones were carried out, as a rule, by authoritative forces and methods.
Revolutionary forces forcibly levied taxes and established compulsory duties, for example, compulsory military service.
The taxes and duties became traditional and have been established by the laws after creation of republics.
The taxes and duties are rudiments of the authoritative system.
break the fundamental principle of the republic
which establishes impossibility of infliction of damage to a citizen and compulsion of him/her by the state,
generate the constant conflict between citizens and their state,
promote corruption, and also cause huge expenses for monitoring systems and for evasion of them.
In democratic republics, the legal paradigm substantially contradicts the principles
(220.127.116.11), and also realises the authoritative principle — "Allowed only what is allowed!"
The democratic legislations contain many laws which regulate actions of citizens contrary to the principle
forbid them actions not causing direct damage to other citizens or a society contrary to the principle
Except direct restriction of the freedom and constitutional rights of citizens, this legal paradigm increases manyfold the complexity of the legislation. This causes multitude of internal contradictions and discrepancies to real public processes, and essentially complicates application of the laws.
To reduce damage which authorities can cause to a society, the democracy ideologists have thought up the concept of "the separation of powers with checks and balances".
According to this concept, authorities are divided into legislative (parliament) and executive (president). The parliament also is divided on two chambers.
Each of these bodies is elected by the population, and is the separate centre of the power.
Their power functions are formally divided. In the reality, the functions of the Supreme Power cannot be divided.
Therefore, the president and parliament always to some extent clash among themselves. Even when the president heads the power party.
According to the general theory of the control, operation of two and more controlling centers in a system inevitably causes conflicts between them and breaks the system functioning.
Therefore, operation of the several centers of the power breaks the governance processes and considerably reduces efficiency of functioning of a society.
Undoubtedly, founders of the ideology of democracy follow the best aspirations to make Mankind happy. But, as is known, "the road to the Hell is paved by good intentions..."
In 1917, the democratic government of Russia could not prevent the communistic revolution because of the conceptual weakness.
In 1933 on democratic elections, nazis gained the power in Germany.
After the World War 1914-18, almost all revolutions and wars were direct or indirect consequences of the basic defects of democracy.
The Mankind has lost hundred millions lives, has suffered huge destructions, has slowed down development on tens years in 20th century because of democracy wich was created artificially and prematurely during the epoch of machine technologies.
In 20th century, bourgeois elites of the Western countries were afraid by socialism.
Till 1960th years, the Western republics were bourgeois-democratic.
The big business freely financed political parties.
The voting qualifications were effective then.
Ideologists of social democracy scared by threat of expansion of communism and convinced the business elite to agree:
with restriction of financing of political parties by private persons,
with the state subsidising of parties,
with elimination of voting qualifications,
with heavy taxes and regulation of the business.
In second half of 20th century, realization of these circumstances considerably reduced political influence of the big business, established domination of clans of social democratic mind manipulators, and transformed the Western bourgeois-democratic republics to social democratic ones.
In social democratic republics, the power belongs to groups of manipulators of mass consciousness which spread social democratic ideology.
They legislatively forbid the bourgeoisies to finance political parties, and thereby strip it of the power.
They cancel voting qualifications and involve poor and undereducated population and youth in elections. Their mass consciousness yields readily to manipulation.
This strengthens the power of manipulators and even more weakens political influence of the business elites.
One of main principles of the social democratic republic — "The state has the rights to take away property of citizens in form of heavy taxes and to regulate private life of citizens and activity of private enterprises."
The state withdraws capitals from enterprises and forces them to big non-productive costs.
These actions considerably reduce efficiency of the economy, speed of its growth, and accumulation of capitals.
Removal of the bourgeoisie from the power alienates it from the society.
The business elite does not feel the responsibility for the future of the country and too little promotes its development.
Businessmen invest capitals in other countries with the best conditions for business.
Absence of enough high payments for use of natural resources and environment pollutions causes wastefulness and big damage to the nature.
The information properties of the state machinery cause its fundamental inability effectively to supervise resources and to carry out large-scale projects.
Therefore, the huge taxes which are taken away from citizens, are wasted without sufficient public advantage and partially plundered.
A society develops slowly or stagnates.
One of the main means of manipulation mass consciousness is propagation of the cult of consumption.
The social democratic state propagandises the way of life on credit, and forces banks to give out unsecured credits.
The state reduces the price of credits and stimulates superfluous crediting of enterprises and the population by the superfluous credit issue.
The state weakens responsibility of citizens, including owners and managers of companies for repayments of credits.
This causes general squandering and results in mass bankruptcies and the economy destruction.
The western ideologists and politicians spread democracy worldwide, including in the undeveloped countries in which according to (18.104.22.168) the authoritative governance and autocratic possession of the basic resources are the most probable and optimum.
In many cases, democracy is spread by means of coups and wars.
The authoritarian distribution of natural resources is the basic way of gaining of riches in these countries.
The main part of the population are isolated from this distribution and have low standard of living.
Therefore, political groups fiercely struggle among themselves for the power, in most cases, by violent means.
The democratic state cannot effectively to suppress mass oppositional groups and keep democracy in the conditions of civil wars.
Therefore, some party establishes the authoritarian regime.
Thus, after a while, as a result of struggle for the power, artificially spreaded democracies in the undeveloped countries as a rule, come back to the authoritarian condition.
In many cases, they formally are considered democratic, simulate performance of democratic procedures, and are pseudo-republics.
If these regimes insufficiently effectively suppress opposition parties, in these countries, mass fanatical movements spread. These movements can seize the power and establish totalitarian regimes.
By the end of 20th century, the information on technologies of weapons of mass destruction became enough accessible. Totalitarian regimes have possibility to acquire this information and to create or get weapons of mass destruction.
The optimum way of development of the backward countries is gradual accumulation of private capitals and creation of the enterprises under steady westernized dictatorships.
When the total volume of capitals in a country will exceed cost of natural resources in this country, bourgeois parties will establish the bourgeois republic according to (22.214.171.124).
As shown above, the social democratic state destroys the economy.
It dissipates resources which were saved up by its predecessor — the bourgeois-democratic republic within centuries.
These resources provide some decades of squandering.
Then, the state borrows credits which following generations will be compelled to pay.
In some decades, credits dissipate.
The social democratic republic wastes the inheritance of ancestors and earnings of descendants, and becomes a bankrupt.
Political disappearance of social democratic republics will finish the epoch of the socialist deviation from natural development of the World civilisation which began in 1917.
Following circumstances developed in the beginning of 3rd Millenium.
The USSR and its socialist satellites disappeared. Influence of the communistic ideology has stopped.
Thus, the reason of existence of social democratic republics has disappeared.
The western social democratic societies have dissipated available resources and have borrowed credits in the aggregate on hundred trillions dollars.
Their expenses exceed the incomes.
New bourgeois republics and countries which approach to this system - China, India, Brazil, Taiwan, Singapore, etc. successfully compete to the Western republics and take away resources from them.
Accruing unbalancing of the economies and strengthening competition with more effective countries have caused the global crisis and lead the social democratic republics into national bankruptcies in 15-20 years.
Unique possibility of the West to avoid the economic and political catastrophe is to return to the bourgeois-democratic, and it is better, to the bourgeois system.
Only at this system, the Western countries can raise efficiency of the economies, balance consumption and production, pay the debts, win the competition with the young bourgeois countries, and vigorously develop.
The Sociogenesis Diagram