The Sociogenesis Diagram
8. The Authoritarianism during the epoch of machine technologies
8.1 In certain cases, as a result of revolution in a republic, some political group can stop the power of a society over the state machinery and carry out the power of the group leader — the dictator.
If the dictator and his group appropriate small part of the national product, the main part of stimulating resources remains at the manufacturers' and owners' disposal.
After a while, their political associations stimulate (bribe) members of the state machinery and gradually again subordinate the state machinery to the Supreme representative body of the society.
Other scenario also is possible but it is less probable. Civil associations use their riches, create public armed forces and wage civil war against the dictatorial group.
This war causes a huge damage to the society and, including, to members of the dictatorial group.
If the dictator and his group appropriate the most part of the national product, interest of businessmen to produce new riches stops.
The national production considerably decreases.
As a result, the riches which the dictatorial group appropriates, considerably decrease.
To restore interest of businessmen, after a while, the dictatorial group can reduce the part of the national product which it appropriates. As a result then, the process occurs according to
By means of the state machinery, the dictator can exert operating influences of various kinds and intensities to manufactures — from taxation and regulation of commodity-money relations to total expropriation and directive governance.
The system of governance has the hierarchical structure.
Each element of the system has certain powers in which it can make decisions. In case of independent making decisions and exceeding his authorities, an official can be punished.
In cases of decisions which exceed authorities, the official should give suitable information to the higher element of the system, receive instructions, and make decision according to the instructions.
The Supreme Head makes the most important decisions. Therefore, the suitable information is processed, transformed, and transferred in the all governance system. The information on the decision of the Supreme Head is transferred downward on the system.
According to the decisions of the higher official, each official makes own decision and informs it to subordinate element of the system.
The less authorities of an element of the system, the more information it should give to the higher element and receive from one.
An industrial economy makes the goods and services of tens millions kinds. It consists of millions manufactures. Technologies of tens thousand kinds are used in them. Hundred millions connections act between the manufactures.
An economy is supercomplex, dynamic, varying system. The infinite multitude of factors acts to it.
The huge multitude of problems arises in it. They demand to make of huge multitude of decisions.
If authorities of heads of enterprises are small, they cannot make decisions on the majority of these problems.
They inform on problems to higher officials and receive from them the instructions for the decisions.
As a result of this, huge streams of the information should be transferred and processed in such governing system.
Information technologies which exist during the epoch of machine technologies, fundamentally cannot transfer and process even a scanty part of necessary streams of the information.
Therefore, the decisions practically never are made operatively, in real time. The decision-making time makes months and even years.
By the time of decision-making, the problems change, and decisions which probably were correct before, often become erroneous.
The majority of necessary decisions are made never. Therefore, the problems are not resolved.
Owing to these circumstances, efficiency of the governed economy is rather little.
The more authorities of heads of the state machinery on governance of manufactures, and the less authorities of heads of the manufactures, the less efficiency of the economy as a whole.
To govern the manufactures, the state machinery has to stimulate them.
To stimulate effectively, the state machinery has to supervise functioning of the manufactures and objective factors which influence the manufactures.
An average and, especially, large enterprise is system of great complexity. Big multitude of objective factors influence it.
To supervise an enterprise effectively, the special system should operate. It should use large quantity of highly qualified controllers.
It is necessary also to stimulate this control system and, in turn, to supervise it. This demands one more supervising system.
To supervise millions enterprises which make the economy, the huge special system should function. Quantity of controllers in it is almost the same as quantity of workers in the economy.
The maintenance of such system demands huge expenses. This causes huge damage to the state machinery.
If powerful enough control system is absent, the state machinery cannot authentically estimate conscientiousness of the enterprises and their heads.
Therefore according to
the state machinery cannot effectively force them to production.
The state machinery cannot authentically estimate objectively necessary production expenses without such control system.
As relations between the enterprises are essentially limited in the governed economy, market prices of products cannot be formed.
In such conditions, heads of the enterprises, as a rule, falsify substantiations of high expenses and the pseudo-objective reasons of poor quality of their products.
Under this condition, according to
the incentive stimulation is ineffective too.
Thus, the stimulation of the enterprises in such system is ineffective.
The overwhelming majority of members of the state machinery are normal persons with normal human defects — laziness and avidity in varying degrees.
Therefore, the necessary condition of their effective work, in most cases, is effective stimulation of them too. Problems of this stimulation are similar to problems of stimulations of the enterprises.
Therefore, the stimulation of members of the state machinery which participate in the governance of the economy, as a rule, is ineffectively. Therefore, the overwhelming majority of them work badly and steal much.
Thus, owing to the fundamental technological inefficiency of the processes of governance and stimulation of enterprises and the state machinery, the efficiency of the governed, including, regulated economy is much less than the efficiency of the free economy which is based on the principles of inviolability of the private property and freedom of activity.
In some years of the regime of the state governance of the economy, the country considerably lags in development behind countries with free economies.
The standard of living of members of the dictatorial group and the state machinery becomes lower than standard of living of officials in neighbour countries.
Hereupon, the support of the dictator by members of his group and the state machinery decreases.
To increase efficiency of the economy, the dictator reduces the part of the national product which he appropriates, gives possibility of free activity to new enterprises and reduces the influence to old enterprises.
Then, gradually the process occurs according to
During the era of artificial production processes, the standard of living of the majority of members of the state machinery is considerably higher under the public System than under the authoritarian one.
Owing to this circumstance, during the era of artificial processes, existence of the authoritarian System in a society is unlikely.
In case of occurrence of such system, after a while, it is eliminated and replaced by the public System.
The political regimes which have the authoritarian form, exist stably in some industrial countries, for example, in Singapore.
Actually, their the state machineries co-operate with bourgeois political associations and realise their political will.
Therefore, these political regimes are pseudo-authoritarian. Their systems are similar to bourgeois republics.
Their the state machineries limit the counterproductive political procedures which are used in traditional democracies and realize equal participation of all citizens in the governance of a society.
Therefore, these countries function more effectively and develop faster than traditionally democratic ones.
According to (188.8.131.52), countries with undeveloped industry and large natural resources have authoritarian regimes which have the properties of feudalism and can exist long time till the natural resources will disappear.
These countries can formally name themself as republics and imitate the democratic procedures - elections, pseudo-parliament sessions, courts.
Totalitarianism during the epoch of machine technologies
184.108.40.206 One of the basic properties of human mentality is ability to trust in myths.
Religions and ideologies are myths which cause action of the corresponding situational-emotiogenic attitudes in mentality of believing people.
The belief can be active and passive.
The passive belief excites the emotion of fear in situations of breaches of interdictions which are established by the myth and by its interpreters and preachers.
The active belief is the complex of the obsessions which excite in mentality:
the emotion of spite which directs a believer to cause a damage to enemies of the myth,
the emotion of joy which directs a believer to carry out ideas of the myth, and
the emotion of grief in situations of damage to subjects, ideas and preachers of the myth.
People which have active belief, are named as fanatics.
Purposes which are established by a myth and its preachers, are the most important for fanatics. For them, these purposes are more important than their lives, corporal requirements, personal relations.
Fanatics of common mythes unite in associations.
Mussolini likened organisations of fanatics to sheaves of brushwood — fascines. Therefore, he named organised fanatics as fascists.
When a quantity of fanatics in a society, including, in the state machinery surpasses 15 %, their organisation gets ability to seize the power in the society by means of violence or different ways.
The organisation of fanatics which has seized the power, directs all resources of the society to achievement of the purposes of the belief, including, the belief spread and destruction of fanatics of other myths, atheists and dissidents.
The fanatical regime ignores necessity to reach long-term efficiency of the economy.
The regime of fanatics is called as totalitarian.
Totalitarian regimes always carry out terror and genocide within their countries and aggression against other countries.
Fanatical aspiration to the belief purposes suppresses pity and humanism in mentality of fanatics.
Totalitarian regimes turn the most part of population into slavery, ruthlessly exploit and kill people.
Different groups of fanatics of one myth support different dogmas and interpretation of this myth. These groups struggle among themselves for the power and resources.
A political regime based on some mass myths, is called as ideocracy.
In cases when a mass myth is religion, the regime is called theocracy — the particular version of ideocracy.
The mass active belief in some myth proceeds in a society within 15-25 years.
Wars strengthen and prolong mass fanaticism.
Then, the mass active belief dies away within 10-15 years. A quantity of fanatics and intensity of their emotions decrease.
The mass belief in the myth passes to passive form.
As a result, the totalitarian regime turns to the authoritarian one.
During next 15-25 years, the processes described in section (8) occur in the society.
The less the country has natural resources which the dominating group appropriates, the faster the society passes to the republic condition.
If the country has much natural resources, according to (220.127.116.11) the authoritarian regime has the properties of feudalism and can exist long time till the natural resources will disappear.
9. The historical change of the principles of interrelations
9.1 During the era of natural productions, a society is a tribe. Each tribe competes to next tribes for natural resources. Therefore, each tribe tries to expel neighbours from occupied territories or to extirpate them.
During the era of artificial productions, possibility of exploitation of workers exists. Therefore, as a rule, banishment or destruction of population of neighbouring countries is not purposes of wars.
During the epoch of muscular technologies, slavery exists in a society. Therefore, the main objective of wars between societies is capture of slaves. Also, other purposes are capture of territories and riches.
During the epoch of technologies of use of cattle, capture of slaves is not the main objective of wars.
During the epoch of machine technologies, the basic riches of a society are constructions and machines. They easily collapse by means of fire-arms. Therefore, assignment of basic riches of a neighbouring society by means of war is impossible.
At the same time, a war causes huge damage to the society-aggressor.
In developed societies with high level of satisfaction of requirements, the majority of people have humanism which excites pity to victims of wars.
Therefore, during the epoch of machine technologies, wars are unlikely.
In process of development, probability of wars between developed societies decreases, practically, to zero.
Probability of colonial wars also is rather little because expenses and losses of a country-colonizer surpass expenses for acquisition of necessary resources by means of free commodity-money exchange.
Almost all wars of 20th century (after World War 1914-1918) in which developed countries participated, were straight or indirectly caused by influence of the USSR which was the historical fluctuation.
Societies maintain armies powerfulness of which is sufficient to cause considerable damage to potential aggressors.
Owing to unprofitableness of wars during the epoch of artificial processes, borders between countries, as a rule, do not change.
A society keeps integrity of its territory and struggles against internal separatism by means of the state violence.
If expenses for struggle against separatists and other costs exceed benefits from kept territory, the society can relinquish this territory and give its population the sovereignty.
10. The historical change of the functions of the religion
10.1.1 Severity and danger of the current life of believing people determine intensity of the passive belief i.e. religious fear.
In problem-free societies which obviate main causes of fears, the majority of the population are atheists.
In primitive tribes, the religion is the belief in deities which personify the corresponding natural phenomena.
Tribal shamans are sources and interpreters of the belief.
During the epoch of Pharaohs, people were very vulnerable, suffered and often died. Therefore, their religious fears were very strong. Therefore, influence of the system of cults (church) was stronger than stimulation.
The state machinery and the army submitted to the Supreme Head because the church (the Council of High Priests) ordered to do this.
Therefore, this state and its Supreme Head were subordinated to the church.
Therefore then, the religion was the power and the state basis.
Such political system is theocratic.
In the USSR and other communistic countries, Communist parties had the system properties and functions of ruling churches.
An ideocratic (including, theocratic) state directs the most part of the national product to the church purpose — construction of pyramids, the world communistic revolution, creation of the World Caliphate.
During feudalism epoch, vulnerability, sufferings and death rate of people were less, than during the epoch of pharaohism.
Therefore, religious fears of people were weaker than during the epoch of pharaohism.
In most cases, influence of them on behaviour of people was weaker than influence of stimulation.
Feudal lords accumulated the most part of riches of a society. They made the state machinery and army. Therefore, their influence on the Supreme Head was stronger than the church influence.
In the course of transition from the epoch of pharaohism to the epoch of feudalism, the Supreme Head used resources and support of feudal lords and established the power over a society.
The Supreme Head destroyed ruling church, forbade its religion, spread new religion and created new church.
By means of the stimulation, as a rule, the Supreme Head carried out the power over the church and governed it.
The Supreme Head used the church as the ideological tool of the governance of the society.
The church was the part of the state machinery.
The Supreme Head and his machinery suppressed all non-state churches because they weakened ideological influence of the state church on the society, supported oppositional political groups, suggested animosity against authorities to the population, and took away resources from the state church.
Thus, in the course of transition from the epoch of pharaohism to the epoch of feudalism, the power of the church over a society was replaced with the secular power.
The monotheistic religion is more preferably to polytheistic one for the Supreme Head. In monotheism, the Head represents the unique god instead of one of many gods on the Earth.
This is essentially easier to govern one church than multitude of competing churches which preach cults of different gods and agitate for different political groups.
Besides, the abstract God does not cause that excessive fear which the gods-natural phenomena cause, and which causes excessive influence of churches on the population.
Thus, domination of technologies of use of cattle in the economy causes propagation of the monotheistic religions in a society.
During the era of artificial processes and republics, citizens have the right to practise any religion in any church or not to practise any religion.
A society forbids the state to limit this right and to support any religion and church.
Therefore, the institute of the state church is absent, and churches are separated from the state.
During the epoch of technologies of transformation of energy, many religions are practised in a society, and many churches operate.
During this epoch, owing to high standard of living and education of the majority of people, the religious belief is not active stimulator which directs their activity, but in consciousness of many people, the belief remains in passive form as some moral interdictions.
In process of change of a society as a result of its development, churches adapt the religions and rituals for current economic, political and cultural conditions.
Last 20-30 years, in the Western countries, the ideology of social democracy acquired the properties and functions of the state cult.
Universities, mass-media and political parties acquired the functions of the cult ruling church.
Similar processes occurred under feudal and communist regimes.
The Sociogenesis Diagram